Voters in California and North Dakota rejected two ballot initiatives that were opposed by agriculture groups.

Californians rejected Proposition 37, that would have mandated genetically modified foods (GM) to be labeled as such, and North Dakota voters rejected Measure 5, the proposal that that would have created a felony penalty for malicious cruelty to a dog, cat or horse.

Proposition 37 was defeated 53 percent to 47 percent, and Measure 5 was defeated 67 percent to 33 percent.

Opposition to Prop 37 came from a host of companies and individuals – many from outside the state – who injected $46 million into defeating the initiative. Those supporting the measure raised $9.2 million.

Supporters of Prop 37 relied on social media and a strong grass-roots campaign in an effort to sway voters to adopt the nation’s first GMO food labeling law. The state-wide battle was a high-profile fight because it pitted businesses against businesses. Big natural-food companies, celebrity chefs and several organic farmers supported Prop 37, while a variety of traditional farmers and chemical, seed and processed-food firms opposed the measure.