A new study of government data has found that all of the net domestic gain in employment over the last 13 years in the United States has gone to foreign-born (legal and illegal) workers.

The same study found that the number of working-age native-born Americans has declined by 1.3 million over the same time period and the changes have impacted native-born Americans of every race, gender, education level and age, particularly men, blacks, and Americans of Hispanic descent.

Steven Camarota and Karen Zeigler, of the Center for Immigration Studies (CIS), found that between the first quarter of 2000 and the first quarter of 2003, the working-age native-born population increased by 16.4 million and accounted for two-thirds of the overall growth in the “working-age population (16 to 65).” Yet, there were 1.3 fewer native-born Americans who were gainfully employed in the first quarter of 2013 than were in the first quarter of 2000.