President Barack Obama predicted on Monday that the Supreme Court would uphold his signature health-care law and said that overturning it would be a prime example of judicial overreach.

It was a rare example of a president laying out his own arguments about a Supreme Court case before the justices are set to reach their decision.

In his first public comments about the case since the justices took it up last week, Mr. Obama appeared to be framing the political argument he would make should he have to face voters this fall after a loss at the high court.